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No. 1 Finish is produced
by rolling stainless steel that has been heated prior to rolling (hot-rolling).
This is followed by a heat treatment that produces a uniform microstructure
(annealing) and ensures that the stainless steel will meet mechanical
property requirements. After these processing steps, the surface has
a dark non-uniform appearance called “scale”. Surface chromium
has been lost during the previous processing steps, and, without removal
of the scale, the stainless steel would not provide the expected level
of corrosion resistance. Chemical removal of this scale is called pickling
or descaling, and it is the final processing step. A No. 1 finish has
rough, dull, and non-uniform appearance. There may be shiny spots were
surface imperfections were removed by grinding. It is generally used
in industrial applications, such as equipment for elevated temperature
Air heaters, Annealing boxes, Boiler baffles, Carburizing boxes, Crystallizing
pans, Firebox sheets, Furnace arch supports, Furnace conveyors, Furnace dampers,
Furnace linings, Furnace stacks, Gas turbine parts, Heat exchanger baffles,
Heat exchanger tubing supports, Incinerators, Industrial oven liners, Kiln
liners, Oil burner parts, Recuperators, Refineries, Tube hangers
No. 2B Finish is a
bright cold rolled finish commonly produced in the same manner as No.
2D, except that the final light cold rolling pass is done using polished
rolls. This produces a more reflective finish that resembles a cloudy
mirror. Finish reflectivity can vary from manufacturer-to-manufacturer
and coil-to-coil with some coils looking quite mirror-like and others
being fairly dull. No. 2B is a general purpose cold rolled finish commonly
used for all but exceptionally difficult deep drawing applications.
It is more readily polished to high luster than a No. 1 or No. 2D finish.
Bakeware, Chemical plant equipment, Dye house equipment, Flatware, Laundry
and dry cleaning, Paper mill equipment, Pharmaceutical equipment
Plumbing fixtures, Refrigeration, Sewage treatment, Sheet metal products, Small
tanks, Solar collector panels, Vacuum drum dryers, Waste fuel pool liners,
No. 2D Finish is a uniform, dull
silver gray finish that is applied to thinner coils whose thickness
has been reduced by cold rolling. After rolling, the coil is heat treated
to produce a uniform microstructure (annealing) and to meet mechanical
property requirements. Pickling or descaling is necessary after heat
treatment to remove the chromium depleted dark surface layer and restore
corrosion resistance. Pickling can be the final step in production
of this finish, but, when finish uniformity and/or flatness are important,
there is a subsequent final light cold rolling pass (skin pass) through
dull rolls. A No. 2D finish is preferred for deep drawing components
because it retains lubricants well. It is used as a substrate when
a painted finish is desired because it provides excellent paint adherence.
Automotive exhaust systems, Builder’s hardware,
Chemical equipment, Chemical trays and pans, Electric range parts, Furnace
parts, Petrochemical equipment, Rail car parts, Roof drainage systems, Roofing,
Bright Annealed (BA or 2BA) is produced by heat-treating (annealing)
in a controlled atmosphere furnace. It has a mirror like appearance
but may have some cloudiness and other imperfections. A finish that
is designated “BA” has only been bright annealed. A finish
that is designated “2BA” has been bright annealed and then
passed between highly polished rolls. A minimal amount of roll pressure
(skin pass) is applied. The process improves flatness and finish uniformity
but does not significantly decrease thickness. Bright annealed stainless
is sometimes buffed to attain a more mirror-like finish. It is often
specified for applications where a highly reflective surface is desired.
Appliance trim, Appliances,
Architectural components, Auto trim, Builder’s hardware, Chute liners,
Commercial refrigerators, Cookware, Fishing equipment, Flatware, Food processing
equipment, General hardware, Highway truck trailers, Mass transit cars, Radiant
heaters, Range hoods, Scientific apparatus, Surgical instruments, Textile finishing
No. 3 Finish is characterized by short,
relatively coarse, parallel polishing lines, which extend uniformly
along the length of the coil.
It is obtained by either mechanically polishing with gradually finer
abrasives or by passing the coil through special rolls, which press
a pattern into the surface that simulates the appearance of mechanical
abrasion. It is a moderately reflective finish. When mechanically polishing,
50 or 80 grit abrasives are typically used initially and the final
finish is typically achieved with 100 or 120 grit abrasives. The surface
roughness is typically Ra 40 micro-inches or less. If a fabricator
needs to blend in welds or do other refinishing, the resulting polishing
lines are usually longer than on product polished by a producer or
Brewery equipment, Food processing equipment, Kitchen equipment, Scientific
No. 4 Finish is characterized by short,
parallel polishing lines, which extend uniformly along the length of
the coil. It is obtained
by mechanically polishing a No. 3 finish with gradually finer abrasives.
Depending on the requirements of the application, the final finish
can be anywhere between 120 and 320 grit. Higher grit numbers produce
finer polishing lines and more reflective finishes. The surface roughness
is typically Ra 25 micro-inches or less. This general-purpose finish
is widely used for restaurant and kitchen equipment, storefronts and
food processing and dairy equipment. If a fabricator needs to blend
in welds or do other refinishing, the resulting polishing lines are
usually longer than on product polished by a producer or toll-polishing
Appliances, Architectural wall panels, Beverage equipment, Boat fittings, Bus
shelters, Clean rooms, Column covers, Dairy equipment, Elevator doors and
interiors, Escalator trim, Food processing equipment, Furniture
Highway tank trailers, Hospital surfaces and equipment, Instrument or control
panels, Kitchen equipment, Luggage handling equipment, Mass transit equipment,
Restaurant equipment, Sinks, Sterilizers, Storefronts, Water fountains
(no picture available)
No. 6 Finish is a dull, silver white finish with relatively short
linear polishing lines. It has a lower reflectivity than No. 4 finish.
It is produced by Tampico brushing a No. 4 finish sheet in an oil and
abrasive medium. This finish is sometimes seen on stainless steel architectural
applications that were installed between about 1930 until the 1980’s,
including the exterior columnar panels adjoining the windows of the
Empire State Building. It is no longer produced by the toll polishing
houses, but custom fabricators occasionally apply it to small projects.
Other finishes, which do not resemble it in appearance, are sometimes
sold as a No. 6. Because this finish has essentially ceased to exist,
no photo is shown.
No. 7 Finish has a high degree of reflectivity and a mirror-like
appearance. A No. 4 finish that has been polished to 320-grit is buffed
for up to 10 minutes but existing grit lines are not removed. The remnants
of fine polishing lines can generally seen by an observer standing
several feet from a panel.
Column covers, Ornamental trim, Wall panels
No. 8 Finish is the most reflective polished finish that is covered
by the ASTM standards. It is produced in the same manner as the No.
7 finish except that the buffing is continued for an additional five
to ten minutes. In comparison to a No. 7 finish, the grit lines are
much less visible, but they can be seen if the finish is examined closely.
The resulting finish is mirror-like but not a perfect mirror.
Clean rooms, Column covers, Mirrors, Ornamental trim, Press plates, Reflectors,
Signage, Wall panels
(no picture available)
TR (Temper Rolled) Finish is specified when higher than normal mechanical
properties are desired. Different temper levels are available (1/16
Hard, 1/8 Hard, 1/4 Hard, 1/2 Hard, 3/4 hard, Full Hard). These levels
are defined by the yield and tensile strengths and elongation. Temper
rolling is typically done on polished rolls and it produces a fairly
smooth reflective finish.